Museum of Geology Maputo
The Museum of Geology Maputo, previously known as the Freire de Andrade Geological Museum, is a rich repository of Mozambique's geological heritage. This African Art museum is located on the 24 de Julho Avenue and was initially established as a synagogue in 1940 during colonial times. The Manueline-style building now houses two main sections: Geology and Industry, each with several sub-sections.
The museum's geological division boasts an extensive collection of minerals, including a section dedicated to precious stones. It also features a stratigraphic collection where rocks are grouped according to the geological ages of various formations. The museum also highlights economic minerals of the Province. The Museum of Geology served as the Department of the National Geological Direction and inherited the rich heritage of the extinct Museum Freire de Andrade.
The museum's function evolved in 2001 to showcase the country’s mineral wealth, thus becoming an African Art museum. Among its many displays are numerous fossils from marine formations and the Fernão Veloso Peninsula, among other parts of the province.
Visitors can embark on a journey through Earth's history in Room 1, where exhibits present the evolution of our planet and some unique fossils from Mozambique. Room 2 offers a detailed geological relief sketch of Mozambique, enabling visitors to discover the areas rich in mineral resources. A highlight of this room is a copy of a 50 cm tall Rubelite, considered the largest crystal in the world, extracted in 1956 in the exploration of rare metal pegmatites in Zambezia province. A part of this crystal is also exhibited at the Smithsonian Museum in the United States of America.
Room 3 contains five subdivisions, each focusing on different aspects of geology, from the characteristics of rocks to the color of minerals, and the radioactivity of rare minerals such as Niobium, Tantalum, Molybdenum, Zircon, Uranium, Antonite, and Fluorite.
Room 4 exhibits the Mozambican mineral collection, hardness and density scales, and a panel on natural gas and oil. It also showcases a gold nugget extracted from Manica and native gold samples from Tete and Niassa. Room 5 presents exploitable rocks and minerals used for various industrial purposes, as well as a showcase of jewels made from gemstones and semi-precious stones from Mozambique.
The Museum of Geology Maputo draws a wide audience, with visitor numbers ranging from 90 to 896 per month. In the last year alone, it welcomed about 46,180 visitors, primarily students and foreigners, with most of the audience being female. The museum serves as a testament to Mozambique's rich geological history and the country's mineral wealth.
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